Objective: This activity is designed to help you understand the process of communication that you will be exploring in your final project.

Background: Please begin this exercise by reading the following information carefully.

Although the study of effective communication practices dates back to such ancient scholars as Aristotle and Cicero, communication as a separate field of study is relatively modern, propelled in part by interest in twentieth-century advances in electronic communications. Scholars look at particular combinations of people communicating with each other in specific contexts. Our readings this week in the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory tell us the resulting theories can be categorized according to communication context:

  • intrapersonal communication focuses largely on our cognitive abilities; 
  • interpersonal communication addresses the communication between dyads and triads (two-three people); 
  • group communication deals with small group interactions; 
  • organizational communication addresses communication across organizations; 
  • public/rhetorical communication examines face-to-face communication to a large group of listeners;
  • mass/mediated communication encompasses messages produced for mass or mediated audiences;  and 
  • intercultural communication looks at communication among people of different cultures.  

Some researchers also specialize in gender communication, which focuses on communication issues of women and between the sexes, health communication, and computer-mediated communication.

Whatever the context, most scholars agree there are five facets to communication that come together to define it as a social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environment.

Let’s see if we can collaborate on enhancing our understanding of these terms!


Select and respond to <one> of the following questions:

1.  Communication is social in that it involves people and interactions, whether face-to-face or mediated.  Can you think of a few more categories for the social patterns of human communication?

2.  Communication uses symbols, arbitrary labels or representations of phenomena that are sometimes concrete in that they represent an actual object, and sometimes abstract because they can represent ideas and thoughts.  Explain a time when you did not understand a “symbol” — what was it, and how did you realize you did not understand what was being communicated?

3. Communication is a process that is an ongoing, dynamic, and unending occurrence. It also is complex and continually changing. If it were not dynamic, compromise and resolution would not be possible. Communication also is irretrievable, irreversible, and unrepeatable; as such, each communication “episode” is unique. Describe a communication interaction – perhaps one you have had — that exemplifies how people can end up in a very different place once a discussion gets underway.

4. Meaning is what people extract from what researchers might call a communication episode. What are some examples of situations in which communication may succeed even without shared meaning?

5. The term environment is used by communication scholars to describe the situation in which communications occurs, and can include time, place, method (that is, whether the communication is mediated by technology), historical period, relationships among the participants, and their ages, genders, education, and cultural backgrounds. All of these elements will influence each person’s perspectives and perceptions during the communication process. For example, the context of Bob Dylan’s music was the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s. What are some major contemporary media messages for which the context has changed in recent years?

Complete your response by telling us some of the challenges that you see to studying the elements of “communication.” 

Make sure to connect your ideas to the course content that you were asked to read by using American Psychological Association-style references. If you are unfamiliar with that reference style, you can find examples at the following link:


Griffin, E. (2009). A first look at communication theory. (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Keyton, J. (2011). Communication research: Asking questions, finding answers. (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Severin, W. J., and Tankard, J. W. (2001). Communication theories: Origins, methods, and uses in the mass media. (5th ed.). New York, NY: Longman

West, R., and Turner, L. H. (2010). Introducing communication theory. (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

©2020 University of Maryland Global Campus


Long-term strategy for vertical integration vs. outsourcing of components



It is February 2010. Martin Kelsey must prepare a six-month production plan that “optimizes the use of manufacturing resources while meeting product quality standards and delivery schedules.” We know the following background on the company from the case study:

For cheap help with your paper, click this.

· Demand for FoldRite’s folding tables and chairs typically peaks in May, but FoldRite must increase shipments to distributors in April to meet that demand.

· The new CloudChair product has won a number of design awards and early inquiries have been very strong – but it’s still too early for confirmed sales. Kelsey does not know how much of the early interest will become actual sales.

· FoldRite experienced manufacturing problems in 2006 which had severely weakened the company financially – causing it to be sold to a group of private investors, who brought in new senior management. The 2008-2009 recession hurt the company further.

· New management mandated four major goals for the company:

· Continued innovation in both products and processes,

· Customer responsiveness: producing high quality products that fulfilled market needs, and providing quick service,

· Lean manufacturing, and

· Retention of a well-trained, stable, and productive workforce, with reduced turnover.

· The company reduced time from order receipt to shipment to a maximum of 2 weeks, and in many cases just 2 days. These helped FoldRite recapture some lost customers – both distributors and their customers, the end users, delayed orders until the last minute.

· The number of products was reduced, enabling the company to offer customization, and still often ship orders in less than a week.

Kelsey has a number of options to plan for a spike in demand in the next few months. These are detailed on pages 4-7 of the case study.

Please answer the following 4 questions based on the case study and everything we have studied to date. Each question counts for 25% of your grade.

1. The VP of Sales told Kelsey that, “manufacturing has got to meet productivity goals because this kind of opportunity might not come again for a long time.” What did he mean by that?

2. Should FoldRite use a demand-leading or demand-lagging strategy? Explain the opportunities and the risks of each approach. What choice would you make? Explain the reasons for your choice.

3. Kelsey reviewed the monthly sales forecast in Exhibit 2. Some major changes in the monthly volumes projected for CloudChair worried him. The peak volume of 4800 units in July was more than 5 times the low projected volume of 900 units/month in November and December. In 2009, the peak in actual chair demand was 3906, only 2 times the low of about 1900/month in November and December.

a. Why does this make Kelsey’s job very difficult?

b. How should he plan to meet this projected demand?

4. FoldRite is strongly dependent on outsourcing for the components in its tables and chairs. Imagine that Kelsey was also asked to recommend a long-term strategy for vertical integration vs. outsourcing of components. Kelsey used the following chart from Chapter 5 to consider his options. Recognizing that the outsourcing decision is different for different components, are there any that you might consider bringing in-house? Explain your reasoning. 

More to read: Project proposal samples



    What do you think the biggest challenges are when creating and reviewing an organization’s balance sheet records? Why? 200-word minimum w/cited references.

    Baker, J. J., Baker, R. W., & Dworkin, N. R. (2018). Health care finance: Basic tools for nonfinancial managers (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning 


      Managemenr Plan (Simple and Quick)


      Planning is a process of identifying goals that provide direction for  the organization. Managers at all levels can participate in the  planning process, selecting the type of plan, establishing the goals  within the plan, and documenting in detail how each goal will be  accomplished.

      According to Robbins and Coulter (1), managers may choose one of the following plans:

      • Time frame: long term or short term.
      • Breadth: strategic or operational.
      • Flexibility: directional or specific.
      • Frequency: single use or standing.

      After a manager identifies which kind of plan to use,  goals that  illustrate how the plan will be carried out must be set. Goals are  actionable steps performed by employees in the organization.

      For this discussion:

      • Choose one of the four listed plan types.
      • Give an example of how you executed such a plan in your personal or professional life.
        • Some examples of personal life plans carried out are setting up a  birthday party, purchasing a home or vehicle, applying for a new job,  signing up for college, or saving money for something.
        • Plans carried out in an organization could include applying for a  new position, learning a new skill or software, improving customer  service strategies, reaching a sales quota, training a new employee, or  working on a particular project.
      • When discussing your plan, identify 3–5 goals or steps taken to complete the plan.

        Linguistic Assignment

        Provide a revised version of Article 2 from your original assignment containing all of the corrections. Under that, tell me the name of the dialect you’re attempting. Then provide me with the transcription. *Note* please use font size 16 and provide each word in brackets

        [wɜ˞d̚]. Use the Linux Libertine font we installed earlier in the course. After this, make note of every sound change you implemented (with a brief explanation no longer than a sentence.

        You need only show each sound change once. E.g., if you have the word nurse [nɜ˞s], I don’t

        need to see that [ɜ˞] becomes [ɜɹː] again (because you already showed me with word (above!). See the following example/ layout:

        [a͜ɪ ̃ ] [nʷo͜ʊ] [wɜ˞ds̬], [a͜ɪ] [h̤ æˑv] [ðə] [bɛst̚ ] [wɜ˞ds̬] – Donald Trump

        Dialect: US hick

        [ãː]˩˥ [nʷə͜ʊ ̃ ː]˥˩ [wɜɹ ̃ ː˞ds̬], [ãː]˩˥ [hɜ͜ɪː ̃ v]˥˩ [də ̃ ] [bɜ͜ɪs ̃ t̚ ] [wɜɹ ̃ ː˞ds̬]- Redneck Donald Trump

        • Loss of 1 st person pronominal diphthong [a͜ɪ] → [aː] o Preservation of [a] from the [a͜ɪ] diphthong (lowering).

        • Some creaky voice e.g., [nʷo͜ʊ ̃ ː]

        • Vowels (excluding schwa) and rhotics undergo lengthening.

        • [æ] undergoes diphthongization and raising to [ɜ͜ɪ]

        • Loss of breathy voice on [h] due to slower speech rate.

        • Most vowels undergo nasalization.


        dis 6

        Chapters 8 and 9 Homework

        Complete the following:

        • Chapter 8: Exercises 8-1 through 8-5 on page 155 of the text.
        • Chapter 9: Exercises 9-1 and 9-2 on page 174 of the text.

        argument essay

         The argument essay is 1,600–1,800 words and must incorporate a minimum of four secondary sources. There’s no graded prewriting assignment for your argument essay. Assignment Objectives Use prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing to write a formal, college-level essay. Distinguish among different patterns of development. Apply an appropriate pattern of development to a specific purpose and audience. Write an effective thesis statement. Develop paragraphs using topic sentences, adequate detail, supporting evidence, and transitions. Employ responsible research methods to locate appropriate secondary sources. Quote, paraphrase, and summarize secondary source material correctly and appropriately. Use APA (American Psychological Association) citation and documentation style to reference secondary source material correctly and appropriately. Apply the conventions of standard written American English to produce a correct, well-written essay. Topic Choose one of the following topics. Each topic focuses on a current © 2019 Penn Foster English Composition (v4) : Lesson 8 : Page 4 Inc. problem that many students face. The high cost of college or student loan debt The lack of proper nutrition Low minimum wage You may narrow the focus of your topic as you see fit. Purpose and Audience The purpose of your essay is to identify, define, and analyze the problem, and then provide a solution to address it. You’ll use the thirdperson point of view. Your audience is made up of your fellow Penn Foster classmates. Many will agree with you, while others will disagree. You need to present evidence to support your analysis and solution, and convince your audience through the strength of your argument and the feasibility of your solution, to side with you. Research Requirement You’re required to use a minimum of four secondary sources in your essay. Use the Research Writing and Citation and Documentation webinar, Journal Entry 16, and the Argument Essay Research Worksheet to help start your research and organize your essay. The required secondary sources are At least two articles from Penn Foster’s digital library database, © 2019 Penn Foster English Composition (v4) : Lesson 8 : Page 5 Inc. Gale Academic OneFile Select At least one nonprofit or government organization (online or print). Look for website domains .org, .edu, and .gov. One source that you choose. Remember that all sources, no matter where they come from, should be evaluated for accuracy and validity. You may use more than four sources, but you should avoid using more than six. Borrowing too much from too many sources will overwhelm your voice in your essay and negatively affect your grade. It could also lead to plagiarism. Process 1. Once you’ve chosen your topic, read through the Argument Essay slideshow and watch the Argument Essay Instructions video. You should also complete the Argument Essay Worksheet. This doesn’t need to be turned in, but you should find it helpful. 2. You should develop your thesis statement, choose a method of organization, create an outline or graphic organizer, and begin drafting your essay. As you draft your essay, ensure that you’re incorporating your sources accurately and responsibly. Remember to include the sources you use in your essay in your list of references. You’ll be using APA citation and documentation style to give credit to your sources. 3. Begin with an introduction that gives a broad overview of your topic. © 2019 Penn Foster English Composition (v4) : Lesson 8 : Page 6 Inc. End this introduction with a thesis statement. Your thesis statement must make your argument and name three supporting reasons. These reasons must be named in the same order they’re discussed in the body paragraphs. 4. Each body paragraph must describe one reason, with the exception of the last body paragraph before the conclusion; this paragraph must consider your opposition. 5. End with a conclusion that reinforces your thesis statement and names your three reasons 


          Guantanamo Bay

          1.    Guantanamo Bay remains open today.  Why did President Obama fail to close the detention facility after signing the executive order in 2009 on his second day in office?  What is the March 2011 executive order all about?

          2.    About how many prisoners have transferred out of Guantanamo, where did they go and how many are left today?  Who are the notorious?  What’s up with Khalid Sheikh Mohammed? What about the five terrorists exchanged for Bowe Bergdahl? Catch up here:  And you say?

          3.    Who is Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri and what’s his story?

          4.    In February of last year a high valued detainee, Majid Khan, reached a plea deal with military prosecutors calling for him to testify against other detainees.  Does this mean that perhaps the facility is working and that Guantanamo military tribunals do indeed not only provide adequate judicial process, but also provide important information gathering and, at the same time, preserve classified information?  Or should detainees simply be tried in U.S. courts?  In this case, should we use Guantanamo as a holding facility until prisoners are transferred and tried in federal court?

          5.    How are detainees categorized?  Does Guantanamo violate habeas corpus or are detainees provided a form of habeas corpus?  Discuss.

          6.    In your own words, what is torture and has it occurred at Guantanamo?  Is coercive interrogation tactics torture?  If so, can you provide some examples and should “tortured” detainees only be tried in a military tribunal at Guantanamo?  .   

          7.   Should high-ranking captured terrorists be tortured or be subject to “enhanced interrogation techniques to obtain timel, vital information (remember Grandpa)? Is torture occurring in Guantanamo today?  Or are detainees treated adequately in Guantanamo?  Afterall, there is a soccer field there for detainees to play on….

          8.    Should Guantanamo be closed or do you think it aids America’s fight against al Qaeda, the Taliban other terrorists and would-be bioterrorists?  Last but not least, what’s new with Guantanamo, especially with the new administration?

          Read the article attach and answers complete 8 questions above.

          APA format,in-text citation, reference include, 2 pages




          Assignment Expectations

          • Length: 500 words per essay prompt (2000 total for this assignment)
          • Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA style. These do not count towards the minimal word amount for this assignment.
          • References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. Include at least three (3) scholarly citations to support your claims.
          • Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx).


          Answer these essay questions:

          1. Explain broadly what official investigations into organized crime have told us. Then select one official investigation discussed in the book and explain what specifically it told us, and whether or not what was uncovered helped shape future investigations, and how.
          2. Discuss the basic qualifications for membership in an organized crime group. Include whether or not you agree with the basic qualifications and why, and if you’d change or eliminate any of them, and why, if you were in charge of one.
          3. In your opinion, explain whether or not you agree with the following statement: “Hollywood glamorizes organized crime to an extent that it attracts more young people and causes more violence that would exist without such focus.” Support your opinion with statistics, news stories, coverage of organized crime shows and movies, and other relevant facts/support. Also include your personal interest (or lack there of) in organized crime and how Hollywood has or has not contributed to it.
          4. Explain how organizational theory helps us understand the concept and function of organized crime. 


            Book List

            After all, what will you do without having your learning ecology around during the rest of the year and beyond?  Well? Based on the lists of reading up there. 

            APA format, in-text citation, references include, 1 1/2 page